By Aleksandar Santrac
Introduction and Historical Background
In his work City as Landscape: A Post-Postmodern View of Design and Planning2 Tom Turner stresses that:The modernist age, of "one way, one truth, one city", is dead and gone. The postmodernist age of "anything goes" is on the way out. Reason can take us a long way, but it has limits. Let us embrace post-postmodernism—and pray for a better name.
Turner pointed out very important truth about the sequence of cultural phenomena. Modernism roughly covers the period from emergence of philosophical rationalism of the 17th century through the end of 20th century. Many believe that the fall of Berlin wall 1989. symbolically represents the point of commencement of a new era of postmodernity, although French philosophical postmodernism came on the world scene in the 70-ies during the cultural paradigm shift. Logically, every system of thought and every cultural phenomenon have their limits, as Turner prophetically argues in the 90-ies of the last century. It seems that today postmodernists' emphasis on pluralism, perspectivism, subjectivism and anti-rationalism does not satisfy any more intellectuals who always search for a new criticism.3
Much has been said about postmodernism and my purpose here is not to discuss features of this widely accepted contemporary world-view (or mix of many world-views).4 I would like to address the question of the nature of trend that ideologically and historically comes after postmodernism and its implications on the life and the mission of the Church.
In the historical sequence of world-views I propose Sept 11, 2001 as a symbolic date of commencement of Post-postmodernism (hereafter PPM) although some argue that Turner's book in 1996 deserves such a role. Sept 11, 2001 or 9/11 became the first shocking performative action (simulation within reality) and the beginning of the history unpredictable and uncertain (maybe the end of history).
There is a call for the new theory of history after this end of history.5 Speaking about this historical context of PPM, Professor Okosun states:
...post-postmodernism is the result of the intellectual and social ahistoricity of the West concentrated especially in the United States. Despite the intensity of ahistoricity, there are still a large number of people in pre-modernity who respect history and tradition. It is hard to conceive that advancement or being developed are synonymous to not speaking to each other, litigating at every excuse, and smearing each other with excreta. The result of our machine behavior is of course the enthronement of one huge putrid social scene from which there seems now to be no escape. The other point is that many people in the West, especially the United States, will insist that this is not the case, and that although everything may not be well, we still enjoy some sense of well-being and tranquility. That is precisely the post-postmodern scenario.6
Ahistoricity of PPM is described, therefore, as a putrid or decayed social aspect of history. Although there is a kind of ambivalence of the nature of PPM, after 9/11 everything seems possible, and humanity has no ground for hope or 'anchor' of social and historical certainty. PPM basically affirms this uncertainty and performance as key postulates. In this historical sense PPM may be called Millenialism7 (after all, it started at the beginning of the new millennium) and the X generation of Postmodernists is followed by the M generation of Millenialists (Post-postmodernists).
In this era of Millenialism or, so called, Ultra-postmodernism we completely lost ourselves in post-historical and post-human condition.
After so much effort to internalize amnesia in the postmodern scene, we turned a corner and simultaneously vomited and excreted every bit of the memory of the self into void. We have created the post-postmodern scene and are unaware that we are there. Now we walk around completely fatal to each other because we have no socially or intellectually coherent mechanism to remember who, why, what, and where we are. Emptied of every element that makes us human, our every intention, look, walk, and talk are litigated. We employ litigations to resolve conflicts. The content of the legal infrastructure is renegade and sectarian, mostly operated on the whims of those who proclaimed themselves in the modern scene as super heroes. We have finally reached the back door of total absence. This is the final exit into absence from the self. Absence from the self connotes the none-presence of others. The post-postmodern entity eats anything and everything, including the self without recognition. Those who complained that alienation and individualism (Philip Slater) in the modern scene emptied and totalized humanity have no culprits to implicate for the post-postmodern condition. The post- postmodern scene is in fact posthuman.8
In this succession of cultural periods, what does really come after postmodernism, how can we think in epoch of posthuman machine behavior? What are the basic tenets of this new zeitgeist or l'esprit du siècle that 'eats anything and everything, including the self'? There are no books explicitly
It is widely accepted that written about post-postmodernism. There are some articles that may be found on the Internet, that are used in this presentation also, but there is no comprehensive work in which we may find the features of PPM. It would be difficult to summarize the characteristics of the new 'movement':
Since the late 1990s there has been a widespread feeling both in popular culture and in academia that postmodernism "has gone out of fashion." However, there have been few formal attempts to define and name the epoch succeeding postmodernism, and none of the proposed designations has yet become part of mainstream usage.9
However, there are some basic noticeable changes in the society that might be described as emergence of PPM, as we have already noticed.
Very often relationship between PPM and postmodernism is analogous to that between postmodernism and modernism. It reacts to and is critical of features of postmodernism. As we noticed, the self-loss of postmodernism is pushed to its extreme of ultra-postmodernism. Speaking about ideological content of these philosophical and cultural trends one could affirm the following sequence of thought. While modernism ruled with 'iron fist' of reason and objective truth and postmodernism with 'hardcore' critique of rational capacities, subjective perspectivism and total relativism where 'anything goes', it seems that PPM rules and will rule with a-historical, a-social and posthuman performatism, new transcendency and new utopia. Let me explain these three, I propose, the most important tenets of PPM.10
Tenets of Post-postmodernism
...systematic attempt to define post-postmodernism in aesthetic terms has been undertaken by the German-American Slavist Raoul Eshelman in his book Performatism, or the End of Postmodernism11. Eshelman, who coined the term "performatism" in 2000, attempts to show that works in the new epoch are constructed in such a way as to bring about a unified, aesthetically mediated experience of transcendence. Performatism does this by creating closed works of art that force viewers to identify with simple, opaque characters or situations and to experience beauty, love, belief and transcendence under particular, artificial conditions. Eshelman applies this model to literature, movies, architecture, philosophy and art.12
Performatism, therefore, is a kind of demonstration of the artificial effect. We all know that performance is something conceived to attract attention. It is interesting that in recent substantial development of means of communication demonstration of the effect is more important than the presentation of facts. Contemporary movie and internet industry play with the application of this principle. Performance is the representation of shallowness of technological reality. In 2006 the British scholar Alan Kirby formulated an entirely pessimistic socio-cultural assessment of post-postmodernism that he calls "pseudo-modernism."
Kirby associates pseudo-modernism with the triteness and shallowness resulting from the instantaneous, direct, and superficial participation in culture made possible by the internet, mobile phones, interactive television and similar means...In pseudo-modernism one phones, clicks, presses, surfs, chooses, moves, downloads. Pseudo-modernism's "typical intellectual states" are furthermore described as being "ignorance, fanaticism and anxiety" and it is said to produce a "trance-like state" in those participating in it. The net result of this media-induced shallowness and instantaneous participation in trivial events is a "silent autism" superseding "the neurosis of modernism and the narcissism of postmodernism."13
While postmodernism denies the possibility of objective truth and affirms and 'smiles' to destruction of truth, PPM plays with remained 'pieces of truth' as effects without any meaning in a spiritual trance of posthuman machine behavior. Through critique of the concept of truth and final purpose of reality interplay between signs and symbols becomes very important in this performative perspective. The success of The DaVinci Code in this context was expected. Everything in The DaVinci Code is a grand performative effect without any depth of argumentation and meaning.
As a means of communication Internet is, of course, millenial or post-postmodern performative effect par excellence. It is Gutenberg's invention of 21st century. On the world-wide web there is only shallow and performative action of communication, knowledge and experience. As Michael Epstein said: "We have become kiborgs".14
Even in politics we can see the "trance-like state" of performance, like in Obamania. Behind the performance of the new age there is nothing stable, certain, genuine, deep and real. The promised change is a grand illusion. And the world is obviously obsessed with this performative shallowness, artificial conditions and the demonstration of the effect of PPM world. Obama is an embodiment of performatism.
New transcendency is in a sense continuation of postmodern 'open door' for the irrational and supernatural. Where postmodernism with its total critique of ratio just opened the door for the supernatural, PPM entered with powerful and deep interest for the mythical and mystical.15
Today, people are not interested any more in rational presentations or explanations of reality. Recent novels and movies like Tolkien's Lord of the Rings or J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter or C.S. Lewis's Chronicles of Narnia demonstrate an interest for a new perspective on reality that could be called religious fiction.16 While science fiction of postmodernism criticized rational approach to science and its limits, religious fiction in PPM tries to criticize official forms of religion and lead the people to new transcendency of myth and religious mystical and mythical stories17. The old-fashioned pre-modern interest for wizards, witches, villas, ghosts, dwarfs, beasts, zombies, spirits of the dead and mythical worlds is back again on the stage of PPM's religious fiction.
Professor Barr mentions the example of president Bush in Baghdad's sky as a shocking action of new 'political' or 'religious' fiction vs. science fiction of the last century.... He says:
This spectacle is also a post-postmodern version of Clarke's 2001: A Space Odyssey. George W. Bush outdid Arthur C. Clarke. Science fiction writers blatantly announce themselves as story tellers. Bush and his handlers, in contrast to science fiction writers, are liars. Bush is a post- postmodern disgrace.18
Liars and disgrace, why? Because PPM's new transcendency of religious fiction (or in this instance political fiction) transcends the old-fashioned science-fiction in a sense that it is even less real in a pseudo-politics or pseudo-religion.
Stories and heroes that resemble myths of Middle Ages have returned to the contemporary scene. While postmodernism rejected religion and affirmed total immanence (perspective of this world only), PPM offers the possibility of transcended world of religious fiction in which humanity has lost real present or future perspective. Speaking about PPM and religion it is quite certain that PPM restores the concept of 'objective' truth but, unlike classical and modern philosophy, can neither validate nor invalidate religion.19 Since there are some remnants of objective truth and at the same time no trust in the official objective form of religion, myths logically fill the gap of people's interest for something stable and systematic, or just seemingly steady. Myths of the past in the new clothes of fictional religion become the imaginary world of comfort and escape for the disillusioned humanity. It seems that PPM could be labeled as neo-romanticism, neo-impressionism and neo-classicism20 with the strong emphasis on feelings caused by the emergence of new aesthetic mythical approach to religion and based on the openness to transcendency.
This, of course, explains, on the other side, the interest of the people for the Roman Catholicism and the Papacy, because papal power is the embodiment of the return of aesthetic religious sentiments, esoteric experiences and mythical world of the Middle Ages. Religious fiction is, therefore, related at least partially to the official forms of religion that demonstrate the restoration of the absolute power of mystical and mythical. Evidently, the emergence of Millenialism and its spiritualism correspond to the rise of the power of papacy. It is obvious, here, that Adventist prophetic insight about the rise of spiritism and papacy becomes especially relevant.
Reconstruction and New Utopia
Finally, new utopia is closely connected to the idea of new transcendency. Postmodernism had a strong anti-utopian perspective. Postmodernists did not believe in a realized ultimate world. They did not support the idea of progress towards utopian society of total tranquility and peace. This is the reason postmodernism criticized communism and Christianity, for example. PPM, however, with a new transcendency offers a new challenge of a desire for the utopian world.21 With all the problems the planet Earth faces, this is not strange at all.
There are probably two distinct ideological backgrounds and understandings of the need for new utopia.
First, neo-pragmatists try to reconstruct the world of pragmatism after postmodern deconstruction. One of the latest interpretations of pragmatic philosopher John Dewey says:
Dewey is thus postmodernist in the sense that he rejects the notion that there is some foundation of certainty on which we can stand. . . . But he is post-postmodernist in the sense that he reconstructed and put to work what the postmodernists had simply dismissed: a set of organic functions or activities that are natural to human beings as a group, that reveal their common evolution, and that can be employed as a part of the process of testing and securing desired ends.22
After all, we are as Marx underlined homo faber. Both capitalist and socialist tendencies for new utopia today might be a desire for the realization of the reconstructed world of function, activity and useful production that was criticized and dismissed in the postmodern era. This is why Obamania hypnotized the world that transcended the political and religious differences. He is beyond capitalism and communism. He offers pragmatic change. The time has come....for reconstruction!
As Sarah Hines, professor of social thought from New York University asserted:
Post-postmodernism, allows for the inventive, almost utopian, revival and remix of all the things that postmodernism critiqued and rejected.23
In addition, Hermione McDubh, who lives and writes in Ullapool points out:
Postmodernists tended to eschew more conventional forms of political participation in favour of interventionist discourse formation and vigorous decentring of naïve cultural paradigms. We are not Postmodernists. We are Postpostmodernists. Therefore we vote Conservative.24
Conservative and pragmatic reconstruction of the world, isn't this what the New World Order (or better say Anglo-Saxon World Domination) is all about? It seems that the prophecies of the Revelation about the emergence of the 'second beast' that would try to reconstruct the world according to its pattern are being fulfilled.25
Behind this pragmatic reconstruction is, of course, philosophical millennial reconstruction of language and reason. PPM revived and reconstructed the language after its deconstruction of post- modernism:
While Postmodern poetics has been an utter failure, there are things to admire. For one thing, language is freed from the past restraints of form and diction. Postmodernists are not afraid to create new language. There is some value in imagination, but the value of imagination comes in when it is used to provide value to oneself or others. The way Postmodernists have used imagination is to destroy value altogether and thus meaninglessness has become the primary value of the Postmodern mind.... Post-Postmodernist thinking, which is still in its early stage of development, seeks to put meaning back into language and seeks to provide a balance between faith and reason. Rather than emphasize one over the other as Modernists and Postmodernists have done, the Post-Postmodernist is concerned with putting faith in Man, in God, and in Value back into poetics, back into language, and back into living (these are not necessarily valued by all, but each is valued by some and all respect the judgments of each).26
Second track of reconstruction is the emergence of new utopia based on religious sentiments, and putting faith in God, Man and Value. Religious scientists (coined term) convince us that science and technology failed in realization of this utopia and they affirm that 'religious consciousnesses' of humanity would lead us to the point of ultimate eternal peace. Not to mention that this seems like New- age perspective that unfortunately becomes compatible with the perspective of substantial part of the Christian world with its tendency toward Ecumenical visible Unity. Ecumenical religious consciousness is based on rejection of the temptation to view the doctrine as important and integral part of Christian experience, as Benedict XVI said at WYD in Sydney.27 Truth of the Scripture is sacrificed for the sake of Unity and new "religious consciousness".
Speaking about some political changes there are some indications that PPM transforms society into multicultural phenomenon ruled by the neo-totalitarian ideologies.28 It seems that after tolerance of postmodernism, 'ghost of the past', totalitarian spirit in many forms appears again on the world stage. Presidents of both West and East behave more and more like dynastical rulers or even kings. This is also the lost heritage of the Middle Ages and the revival of the spirit of utopian mythical pre-modernism.
After all, how should biblical Christians respond to and evaluate PPM's world of demonstration of the effect of performatism, openness of new transcendency through religious fiction and reconstruction of new utopias so prevalent today?
PPM and Christian faith
Since we already live in PPM era it seems crucial to affirm just basic points of dialogue between biblical Christianity and PPM. First, let us make a brief list of obvious differences.
Unlike PPM that only partially reacts to postmodern subjective approach to the truth, the Scriptures affirm objective revealed truth and not just performative or subjective value of facts. God is real and He is actively involved in the world. Metaphysically speaking He is not just necessary effect or imaginary figure. In addition, we read in the Gospels that Christ never acted with performance for its own sake in order to astonish and shock His followers. His miracles were signs of spiritual objective truths and experiences.29 He spoke truth and acted in truth affirming its relational aspect, and truth, not effect, was the appealing force.30 Nowadays, in PPM culture of value of performance, it is not hard to imagine the powerful delusion of Antichrist's miracles, grand effects, also predicted in the Bible as a last deception and a sign of the end times.31 Performatism of PPM opens the way for the last religious fraud.
In contrast to PPM, Bible does not speak about transcended myth as invention of human mind (writers of the Scriptures). Stories of the Bible are based on God's genuine and true perspective of the inspiration process which is always truthful and reliable.32 Openness to the spiritual world in the Scriptures is defined by faith, love and truth in the experience of prayer and rites, not by aesthetic subjective experience of new transcendency. This dangerous openness of spiritualism of the new age or sacramentalism of the papacy as an embodiment of mythical and mystical aspect of religious experience is even condemned in the Holy Scriptures.33
Finally, unlike PPM, Christianity affirms the coming of the future world realized not by historical development of human reconstructed pragmatic or religious consciousness but through divine supernatural action in human history - namely, second coming of Christ.34 Church is never portrayed as a totalitarian final authority over world affairs. On the contrary, it is called to suffer bearing its cross as a witness in this world. Overcoming the world is not the result of political-religious institutional endeavor (by the force of 'Babylonian' spirit) but the experience of faith and love through persistence in suffering and the power of Christ who is coming again to transform the planet.
Therefore, PPM and the Christian faith are basically incompatible 'world-views'. However, there are some specific features of post-postmodern zeitgeist that might be a useful
apologetic tool for the reconstruction of the Christian faith. As Professor Ogletree states:
The post-ironic movement is one of artistic hope. In America, the battle cry today is not one of removal from society and disconnect but of hope in reconstructing society in the liberal view or saving society from being deconstructed into the liberal view. Christians find their liberties threatened while liberal causes find their status elevated, both circumstances provoking those on either side to take a serious look at the society in which they live, to take an earnest stand for the beliefs and their freedoms.35
He continues :
Whatever this era is finally called, it is one in which secular and faith-based fiction will use similar tools to achieve their desired ends. This strange convergence is an opportunity for faith-based fiction to reach beyond its pew-filled borders and speak to the secular, unbelieving world, if it can only find the conviction and the courage.36
Earnest stand, deep conviction, heroic courage, genuine conversion, authentic faith and the awareness of 'being in the world' are necessary for the spiritual reconstruction of this age. Secular world (in the present form based on the ideology of PPM) is ready and open for the idea of reconstruction and reformation of spiritual values. Perhaps, in our evangelistic efforts we might recognize points of PPM as a new possibility for mission in the 21st century. Although we are waiting for Christ to come, we should not be idle in this reconstructing process. PPM world is waiting to hear and see our spiritual renewal.
Evangelism in the age of PPM
In order to have a relevant message, evangelism in the 21st century needs to be performative with emphasis on transcendency and 'utopia'. Having in mind that biblical Christianity could not and must not sacrifice its content and its power in Christ, what does this mean? How could we be relevant today in the context of PPM culture or Post-postmodernity?
First, reconstruction of Christian theology and piety is necessary. It seems that we are on the edge of a new reformation and spiritual revival similar to that of the XVI century. This spiritual reconstruction represents ideological back to the roots and practical piety in the power of Christ and apostolic Christianity. After theological and spiritual deconstruction of postmodernist perspectives reconstruction of post-postmodernist Christian zeitgeist is coming.
In the world of performatism how can we evangelize with greater success? In modern world (modernity) Christ was presented as the Word. In postmodern world He was to be presented as an Image.1
In PPM world, however, Lord Jesus, as cosmic Ruler and Savior who is coming again, needs to be presented as performative Power. PPM period, in the perspective of Adventist prophetic revelation, accords with rise of spiritualism or spiritism. As we know, spiritualism concerns the controversy between powers of Satan and power of Christ. Truth in Christ is successful as much as it demonstrates its power against power of satanic lies and deceptions. This does not diminish rational adherence to the truth. On the contrary, it affirms biblical-rational concept of spiritual war over human mind between powers of good and powers of evil.37 However, power of the argument is not the power of rational proof only but the power of the sign of God's presence through the Spirit of power. Final evangelism, as we know, is possible only through power of the Spirit of the apostolic age. Affirming biblical content of preaching Christ, Paul develops this idea in 1 Cor 2, 4-5: "My message and my preaching were not with wise and persuasive words, but with demonstration of the Spirit's power, so that your faith might not rest on men's wisdom, but on God's power". This power transforms, heals, regenerates and creates a new being.
Christ is not a myth, of course, but in the dialogue and encounter with new transcendency of religious fiction we need to affirm biblical religious 'fiction'. Power of biblical story of Christ would be stronger and more powerful than powers of mythical stories invented by human or Satan's mind. Since people are more and more interested in religion (very often counterparts of biblical Christianity and Church as institution) we do not need always to present rational arguments about truthfulness and authenticity of biblical faith.38 We need to be a living performance of 'true myth', namely Christ. We need to live and die for the true story of the Scriptures. This authenticity of faith might offer the new power of biblical 'fiction'. This power is portrayed in, let us say, reconstructed contemplation and 'mystical' approach to God with extraordinary spiritual concentration. Here I use only terminology that calls for biblical content of genuine openness, meditation and powerful prayer. Ken Wilber is speaking about integrative contemplative Christianity as a certain future and Karl Rahner, the noted Catholic ecumenical theologian, once remarked that "the Christian of tomorrow will be a mystic, or not a Christian at all."39 Let us try to embrace the term and apologetically reconstruct biblical Adventist perspective on power of 'mystical' biblical experience.
Finally, Christ has promised much more attractive and powerful world of realization then religious scientists, Christian leaders or political Messiahs promise new utopias. Power of true world is much more effective than the power of utopia. The Second coming of Christ is plausible because people realize that this planet rushes into self-destruction. They see the rise of neo-Marxist and neo-socialist or religio-political powers of 'Babylon' that promise new utopia but they also see or will see that these promises stir vain hope, especially when the different tragedies of the planet will have multiplied. Next time we pray for the ultimate peace of this world, be attentive who is calling and why? There are two powers and two gods in the great spiritual conflict for the realization of the ultimate world. And we do not need fictional or ecumenical utopias, we desire reality of genuine and living Christ and His Kingdom.
Therefore, it seems that the world-view beyond postmodernism might create an apologetic and spiritual environment that could serve to advance the gospel. This is possible only if the disciples of Christ recognize the final wake-up call and receive the power that is beyond any power, whether on this world or in the world to come.
1 Urban Dictionary, Internet, http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=post-post-modernism. 2E&F Spon., an imprint of Chapman and Hall, London, 1996. 3 There are 14.800 references to post-postmodernism on Google search. 4The most comprehensive overview of basic features of postmodernism from evangelical perspective is still Stanley Grenz's A Primer on Postmodernism, Eerdmans, 1996. For more concise overview of philosophical postmodernism see Aleksandar S. Santrac, Deconstruction of Baudrillard, Edwin Mellen Press, New York, 2005, pp. 7-19. The results of this study might be considered as PPM reaction to Jean Baudrillard's postmodernism. This reaction includes evaluation of postmodern ideas and 'turning these ideas against themselves' (deconstruction idea).
5 Georg G. Iggers, « A Search for a Post-postmodern Theory of History », History and Theory 48 (February 2009), 122-128. 6 T.Y. Okosun, « The Problem of the Social Self in the Post Postmodern Scene", Northeastern Illinois University, (http://www.neiu.edu/~tokosun/Courses/postmodern1.htm). 7 « Modern, Postmodern, & Post-Postmodern: Why Poetry Is No Longer In Disintegration Mode », (http://www.worldclasspoetryblog.com/modern-postmodern-post-postmodern-why-poetry-is-no-longer- in-disintegration-mode/06/23/2008/). 8 Ibid. 9 « Post-postmodernism", AbsoluteAstronomy.com, Exploring the Universe of Knowledge, (http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Postmodernism). 10 Of course, I do not claim that this is an exhaustive presentation of PPM. It seems that this 'world- view' is still 'under construction'. 11Aurora, Colorado: Davies Group 2008, ISBN 978-1-888570-41-0. 12 Ibid. 13Allan Kirby quoted in « Post-postmodernism", AbsoluteAstronomy.com, Exploring the Universe of Knowledge, (http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Postmodernism). 14 Michael Epstein, What Comes After Postmodernism, Public Lecture, Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Serbia, May 6, 2009. 15 Or, so-called spiritualistic religions without official religions with revelation. 16 Religious fiction emerged out of spiritual science fiction of the 60ies and 70ies of the last century. Good examples of this fiction were Isaac Asimov and Arthur Clarke. 17It is interesting that on one of the Post-postmodern Manifesto(s) belief in ghosts and miracles is explicitly mentioned (http://www.adamgottschalk.net/words/popomo.html, point 14 and 15) 18 Marleen S. Barr, « Science Fiction and the Cultural Logic of Early Post Postmodernism », Socialism and Democracy, Vol 20, Issue 3, Nov 2006, 167-186. 19 See Morton A. Kaplan, "Post-postmodern Science and Religion", International Journal on World Peace, vol 18, issue 1, March 2001. 20 As Turner argues in Tom Turner, City as Landscape: A Post-Postmodern View of Design and Planning, 8. 21 There are some new movements that want, for example to restore communist and Marxist views (as new utopia) against postmodernistic perspective: see Antonio Callari, Stephen Cullenberg, and Carole Biewener, Marxism in the Postmodern Age: Confronting the New World Order, Guilford Press, New York, 1995. 22 Larry A. Hickman, Pragmatism as Post-Postmodernism: Lessons from Dewey, New York: Fordham University Press, 2007, 20. See the whole review of this book at Michael Eldridge, Review.... 23Sara Hines, "Post-Postmodernism And the Archive: Uncertain Identities And "Forgotten" Legacies", Afterimage, 03007472, Nov/Dec2007, Vol. 35, Issue 3.
24Royd Payne, « Whither Postpostmodernism? » 25 Revelation 13,11
26 « Modern, Postmodern, & Post-Postmodern: Why Poetry Is No Longer In Disintegration Mode » 27 http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/messages/youth/documents/hf_ben- xvi_mes_20070720_youth_en.html 28 http://anagennesis.townhall.com/g/bcdebeb9-fafb-47d8-8f63-78383b38a7d1?comments=true
29 John 2,11.
30 John 7, 16-17 and 8, 31-32. 312 Sol 2. 32 2. Pet 1, 19-21. 33Revelation speaks about three unclean spirits as 'frogs' (symbols of religious fraud) (Rev 16). These spirits are spiritism, papacy and liberal-democratic deception of the Western world.
34 Rev 19, 11-16 as example.
35Wade Ogletree, "Post-postmodernism continued: Christian Fiction in the Post-Ironic World," internet, (http://betterfiction.com/blog/blog1.php/2008/12/19/post-postmodernism-continued-christian-f)
36 Ibid. 37 Ephes 6, 10-18. 38 This does not mean that we need to leave behind rational investigation of the Scriptures. Christ is both the Word and the Power only through the Word (Scriptures). In other words, He is true Christ only by the power of the Bible.
39Ken Wilber, « Post-post Modernism — "What in the word is happening?" (http://livingjourney.wordpress.com/2006/06/14/post-post-modernism-what-in-the-word-is-happening/)